Of particular interest to me is the earlier stages of development of computer chess programs, primarily through the 1970's (which I was involved in). The main contenders for best program from that era until today also has my interest, as does Kasparov and his "deep" involvement with computers.
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as long as full credit is given to:
Louis Kessler's Chess and Computer Chess Links at
along with the Last update date.
Last update: Sunday June 03 2012
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Help! How Do I Use These Links?
Over Ten years ago, I submitted a set of four objectives that I challenged the Chess world to strive for. Here I list the progress towards those challenges.
by Mike Leahy
Bookup is a program for analysis of chess openings that blew me away when I first saw it. If I was competing in chess, it would be a no-brainer to buy it and use it to dramatically improve my play. If you play chess, get it and use it!
You can buy Ebooks of opening analysis and load them into Bookup and contrast them with each other, or compare them to full games you load in pgn or gm2 (MasterChess) formats.
I won't try to explain what Bookup can do. These tutorial videos give you what you need.
This is the part of Bookup that excited me the most. I write in my challenges: "I was always intrigued by the possibility of putting all these positions into a single database and back-calculating the optimum moves at each position as a chess program would. This would be akin to solving the game of chess for the small sample space of positions that are in the one book of openings. What would happen? Would white be able to force an advantage? Would black be able to equalize? Or maybe white is zugzwang in the opening position, and black will come ahead.".
Checkers is Solved
They've solved the game of Checkers. Here's the article in 2007 about the process. Perfect play by both sides leads to a draw. Now let's solve chess!
Shredders Opening Database
by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen
Here you can interactively access Shredder's opening book of will over a million moves. It's the largest opening book available online that I know of.
Shredders Endgame Database
by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen
This is Shredder's online endgame database. It includes all endgames of 6 or fewer pieces, except for 5 vs 1.
Play Online Against Shredder
Play against Shredder online at three possible levels - easy, medium and hard.
by Adam Berent
This is a site documenting the development of a computer chess program, sort of very much like I did 30 years ago. Adam details all the steps that he's taking and has set performance goals for his program to meet.
Chess Game Starter Kit
Want to program your own move search and evaluation. Here's a program that will do most of what you need to play chess, but leave the search and evaluation up to you. It is written in C#. Adam makes it available free, even for commercial use. So go to it!
|Brilliancies by Computers
To inspire you, take a look at these games, organized by type of brilliancy.
|Computer Chess - A Memorial to BRUTE FORCE
by Louis Kessler
All about my personal venture into the computer chess world. During the latter half of the 1970's my program competed in two North American Championships. A wonderful set of memories I shall not forget.
The Games of BRUTE FORCE
View some of the games of my program with this marvelous game viewer generated by the Palview program.
|An Interview with Deep Blue
by John Burstow
A humorous article where Deep Blue provides advice for aspiring youngsters to improve their chess.
|What Computer Chess Can Tell Us About Intelligence
by Louis Kessler
A Commentary I did for CBC Radio across Canada, broadcast on Feb 11, 2003.
|Man vs Machine - the Endless Fascination
by Ram Prasad
An article chronicling the most important matches to date.
|Vladimir Kramnik vs Deep Fritz
The Nov 25 - Dec 5, 2006 match in Bonn, Germany. Deep Fritz won with 2 wins and 4 draws.
|Garry Kasparov vs X3DFritz
A site documenting the Nov 11-16, 2003 match in New York City. This ended with 1 win each and two draws (2-2). Here are the four games.
|Garry Kasparov vs Deep Junior
Jan 26 - Feb 7, 2003 in New York City. This ended with 1 win each and four draws (3-3).
Broadsheet News and Internet Portal Reports
Various Articles about the match from around the Internet
Deep Junior Timeline
by Jorn Barger
A history of the development of Deep Junior.
The Chess Games of Deep Junior
A selection of games starting in 2001.
|Vladimir Kramnik vs Deep Fritz
Information about the match played in October 4-19 2002, ending with 2 wins each and 4 draws (4-4).
"Fritz plays somehow like... a human"
An interview with Kramnik with interesting information about Fritz.
Other Articles about this match
Its very easy to still find info about the match on google because of its unique name.
The Chess Games of Deep Fritz
A selection of games starting in 2000.
|Kasparov vs Deep Blue
A nice summary of the two matches in 1996 and 1997.
|Kasparov vs Deep Blue Rematch
New York, May 3 to May 11, 1997. In 6 games, Kasparov won 2, lost 1 and 3 were drawn. Kasparov won 3.5 to 2.5. This is the original site as archived by IBM.
Kasparov vs Deep Blue Rematch
by Bill Wall
Bill Wall's summary of the series, plus a host of other great links relating to match.
The Chess Games of Deep Blue
16 games from 1993 to 1997.
|Kasparov Beats Deep Thought
This was one of the first major Man-Machine matches played in October 1989. Game 1. Game 2. Kasparov crushed Deep Thought 2-0.
Deep Thought's Evaluation Function Tuning Program
by Andreas Nowatzyk (on Tim Mann's Page)
Andrew was one of the contributors to the Deep Thought project while he was in grad school.
|Computer - Grandmaster games 1963-2002
A compiled index of the stored Computer vs GM games along with a link to the 2003-2007 list.
|Top Players vs Computers
A number of interesting games listed from 1984 to 1999.
|Magnus Carlsen - The Official Website
Possibly the best chess player ever, and we are blessed to be here in his era. He blogs and tweets.
The Chess Games of Magnus Carlsen
Be sure to see the "Magnus Carlsen's Best Games" collection by notyetagm
Magnus Carlsen: Mozart of Chess
This was a "60 minutes" news special on him at age 21, shown on CBS on February 19, 2012.
Magnus Carlsen vs Garry Kasparov - Reykjavik Rapid 2004: 1/2-1/2
This was the draw he had at age 13 against Garry Kasparov described in the CBS special.
Garry Kasparov vs Magnus Carlsen - Reykjavik Rapid 2004: 1-0
This was the other game he played against Kasparov in the same tournament - but lost.
|London Chess Classic versus The World (on Twitter)
This was a good-humoured attempt to make the highest level game of chess ever played. It included Carlsen 2826, Anand 2811, Aronian 2802, Kramnik 2800, Nakamura 2758, Adams 2734, Short 2698, McShane 2671 and Howell 2633 who played white against the rest of the world on Twitter. The grandmasters won in 23 moves.
|Kasparov vs the World Chess Page
Over 124 days from June to October 1999, this amazing game pitted Kasparov versus the combined thinking of the world, one move per day. Kasparov won in one of the most amazing games you'll ever see, and the game he called the greatest of his career.
Who Is Winning Graph
This is an amazing feature that should be a part of every game analysis.
Wikipedia Kasparov versus the World
Detailed analysis move-by-move of the game.
Chess Lab Commentary
by Jude Acers
My favorite: A very sharp and pointed commentary on the match.
|Chess Engines Grand Tournament (CEGT)
They test chess engines and give the results and information to chess enthusiasts.
Tournament chess engine rating list
Top programs by Elo rating.
|Houdini Chess Engine
by Robert Houdart
Widely considered in 2012 to be the strongest chess engine on the planet.
|Chess Engine (on Wikipedia)
Wikipedia has quite a bit of interesting information about Chess Engines.
The Chessgames.com Online Games Database contains the best collection. Many of the early Computer Chess Tournaments are included, but games are unfortunately not accessible by tournament. Here is a listing of the most notable programs of earlier days.
by Frans Morsch and Matthias Feist
225 games from 1991 to 2006. 66 wins, 69 losses, 48 draws. Includes games against Kasparov and Anand.
by Ed Schröder
102 games from 1986 to 2001. 48 wins, 26 losses, 28 draws. Most games are against humans.
42 games from 1993 to 1997. 16 wins, 9 losses, 15 draws. Includes games against Kasparov and Judit Polgar.
118 games from 1988 to 1994. 70 wins, 27 losses, 4 draws. Includes games against Kasparov. Deep Thought was the predecessor of Deep Blue.
by Richard Lang (and others)
53 games from 1983 to 1997. 18 wins, 27 losses, 5 draws. Includes a draw with Karpov in 1983, 9 losses to Kasparov in 1985 and a win over Judit Polgar in 1990.
by Hans Berliner, Carl Ebeling, Murray Campbell, and Gordon Goetch.
16 games from 1986 to 1995. 2 wins, 13 losses, 1 draw.
by Robert Hyatt, Harry Nelson and Albert Gower..
6 games from 1981 to 1993. 2 wins, 4 losses.
by Joe Condon and Ken Thompson.
12 games from 1977 to 1990. 5 wins, 4 losses, 3 draws.
by Larry Atkin and David Slate
5 games, all against David Levy in 1978. 1 win, 3 losses, 1 draw.
by Larry Atkin and David Slate
12 games, 1972 to 1980. 9 wins, 1 loss, 2 draws. Chess 4.0 was the predecessor to Chess 4.7
|All Other Computer Games Listed
This is a Google search to all the computer listings at chessgames.com.
|Chess Programming Wiki
An online repository of information about programming computers to play chess. In addition to the wiki information, many computer chess programmers contribute information here.
|The International Computer Games Association (ICGA)
Information about the society and links to society events. They were formerly the ICCA (International Computer Chess Association).
The ICGA Journal
An excellent quarterly publication, very technical in nature, with up to date news, results, and the latest algorithms used in writing computer chess programs.
ICGA Investigations Wiki
This site was set up by the ICGA to gather data to ensure computer chess programs entered in tournaments are not stolen or cloned.
|The Swedish Computer Chess Association
Performs program vs program benchmarks and maintains the comprehensive Swedish Rating List.
|Mastering the Game - A History of Computer Chess
by the Computer History Museum
An on-line exhibition related to computer chess from 1945 to 1997.
Computer Chess Collection
Contains documents, photos, movies and oral histories for the online exhibition.
|History of Computer Chess
About ancient programs, computer chess pioneers and chess programming history.
|Computer Chess (on Wikipedia)
A very nice article with a summarized history of Computer Chess
|World Computer Chess Champion
A list of the past winners of the World Computer Chess Championships and the World Microcomputer Chess Championships. There are links to pages with information about many of the programs.
|Computer Chess History
by Bill Wall
A summary of the important events in Computer Chess - from 1947 to present.
ACM Computer Chess
by Bill Wall
Lists all the competitors and the winners at each ACM Computer Chess tournament from 1971 to 1994.
|Antique Chess Programs
by Carey Bloodworth
What used to be a terrific resource with information about most early Chess programs, their authors, and the availability of their original source code. Unfortunately, it is no longer maintained.
|The History of Computer Chess: An AI Perspective
A Google video of a Computer Chess panel with Monty Newborn, Murray Campbell, Edward Feigenbaum, David Levy and John McCarthy from September 8, 2005.
|Hans Berliner's Publications
Author of HiTech and the developer of the B* search algorithm (and also a former World postal chess champion). He wrote or co-wrote 26 papers on Computer Chess between 1973 and 1996.
The B* Tree Search Algorithm
An abstract of the article about the algorithm. (I consider this to be the penultimate algorithm. Someone, please, put this into a crunching machine and you will achieve a human-like chess player of extraordinary strength - lkessler)
Worked with Tony Marsland and Hans Berliner in the early 80s on Computer Chess theory. Was one of the people who worked on the 1997 version of Deep Blue.
An Enjoyable Game. How HAL plays chess.
by Murray Campbell
In this intriguing in-depth article, Murray explores whether the computer HAL of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey demonstrates intelligence through its chess playing.
Author of CRAY BLITZ in the 70's, and the current program CRAFTY.
Author of WITA and AWIT of the 70's. Currently the President of the International Computer Chess Association.
Computer Chess Methods
A paper written in 1997 for the Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. Includes: 1. Historical Perspective, 2. Terminology (techniques and algorithms), 3. Strengths and Weaknesses of programs, 4. and 5. Bibliography and Abbreviations.
|Monroe (Monty) Newborn
Professor of Computer Science at McGill University in Montreal, author of Ostrich (1972-1988), and a leader in the promotion of Computer Chess worldwide. This is an information page on computer chess by and about Monty Newborn.
Wrote many important papers on parallel search techniques for computer chess. Author of PHOENIX (actually an 80's program).
Chinook - The World's Best Checkers Program
Jonathan Schaeffer's checkers program - with the attainable goal of solving the game of checkers. Will chess be solved next?
Let's Play Checkers
Want to play Chinook online? You can!
The author of BELLE, and first person to develop chess-specific hardware. Ken also pioneered and developed tablebases (i.e. perfect play) for a large number of endgames.
Ken, Unix, and Games
by Dennis Ritchie
An interesting article about Ken and his work on Computer Chess.
Ken Thompson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ken's programming history with a nice picture of Ken. Ken was one of the creators of the Unix Operating System, developed the B programming language (a precursor to C), developed UTF-8 encoding, and lots more.
Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie
Pictures and important events about Ken and Dennis' achievements, in their development of Unix together and Ken's achievements in computer chess. Dennis passed away Oct 12, 2011 at age 70.
|Chess Programming Wiki
by Mark Lefler
A repository of information about programming computers to play chess. Their goal is to be a reference for every aspect of chess programming.
by Francois Dominic Laramee
A complete non-technical six part series about programming computers to play chess. (1) Getting Started, (2) Data Structures, (3) Move Generation, (4) Basic Search, (5) Advanced Search, and (6) Evaluation Functions
|Game Theory - Computer Chess Notes
by Dr A. N. Walker
Many aspects of programming chess are described here very well. Included are alpha-beta pruning, iterative deepening, killers and history, transposition tables, quiescence, the horizon effect, null moves and other topics of interest.
|Game trees. Alpha-beta search
by Zhifeng Xiao
This is the best description that I know of for the alpha-beta algorithm. Excellent illustrative diagrams and code are included.
|Parallel Computing Works
A extensive detail of the work done at the Caltech Concurrent Computation Program, Pasadena, California.
Chapter 13.1 Computer Chess
by Guy Robinson
The Computer Chess section of the book.
|Computer Chess Programming Links
by Paul Verhelst
A great page to start from if you want to delve into the programming of Computer Chess.
Chess Program Sources
Paul has this listing of available source code for chess programs.
|Homeostatic Chess Player
by Rick Wagner
Chess can even be programmed now as a Java applet. Rick Wagner has an online playable game that uses such an applet, with description of some of the internals that make it tick.
by Resplendence Software Projects Sp.
For Delphi and C++ Builder. Provides a 2-Dimensional chessboard with a drag and drop interface that can keep track of a game and allows full customization of the bitmaps for the pieces, squares and border. Optionally the board is resizable at runtime. All common chess events are implemented (OnLegalMove, OnIllegalMove, OnCapture, OnCheck, OnMate, OnStaleMate, OnDraw etc.) The component includes the engine of Tom's Simple Chess Program and calculates using its own thread. Optionally it allows you to use your own custom engine instead as well. Just drop a Chessbrd component on a form and you are very close to a complete multithreaded chess application. A Delphi example project has been included to demonstrate the common features.
|Chess Archive - Endgames
by Ken Thompson
Ken has made available a wonderfully elegant and easy to follow online representation of all the endgames that he has solved.
|All About Tablebases
Here is info about the history of endgame tablebases and how to generate them using the tbgen.exe program that comes with ChessBase.
by Valentin Albillo
A comprehensive selection of quite difficult Chess Tests, intended to allow you to test your favorite chess program's abilities, or even your own abilities. Plus results of how various programs do against them.
|Computer Chess Books
by Louis Kessler
My own listing of valuable reference works for those interested in Computer Chess.
Touted as the World's biggest bookstore, their online library of book information alone is worth the visit. They will attempt to track down hard-to-find and out-of-print books for you. Most computer chess books fall into this category.
Amazon.com - Query Results on Computer Chess
A listing of several dozen books, with noted indications as to which ones are now hard to find.
|Chess Bibliography: Computer chess books
by Valentin Albillo
Reviews of some of the most popular Computer Chess Books - with images of their front covers.
|World Chess Champions
A best-in-class website providing insights on the best in chess, say, world’s chess champions in men, women, juniors and even software. The website has been endorsed by Vishwanathan Anand and Alexandra Kostenuik.
The site I like best for Chess and Computer Chess news from the makers of Chessbase.
A free special version of ChessBase game analysis software. Its only limit is 8000 games per database.
|Chess Programs and Utilities
Here is a nice concise list of all sorts of chess-related programs you might be interested in.
|Steve Pribut's Chess Page
Probably the best page for chess on the internet.
Rec.games.chess Frequently Asked Questions
Steve maintained this authoritative file up to the end of 2004. It is still jam packed full of information.
|La Mecca - Chess Encyclopedia
Contains chess definitions, chess links, opening codes, an ELO calculator, and more. It's links are especially informative and beautifully set up.
|ChessQuotes about Computers
by David Lawless
Interesting quotes by interesting people.
Do an online search through a database of millions of chess games, or set up a position and see if it is in the database.
|Jeff Mallet's Computer Chess Page
Jeff has a great selection of categorized Computer Chess links.
|Geometry.Net - Math Discover Books; Computer Chess
A very nice selection of computer chess links with descriptions.
|Usenet Newsgroup for Computer Chess
This newsgroup has people primarily interested in chess computers you buy in the store, but recent computer/grandmaster matches have also been also a popular topic.
|These are home pages of a web site or sub-site. Generally they act as a table-of-contents, containing mostly local links to the rest of the site.|
|Up-to-date information about current activities and events. These pages are changed quite often, so check them regularly.|
|These pages give instructions on how to go on in your information quest, where to look next, and increase your level of overall expertise.|
|A web page that is designed to help you find or do something. It may be an index, guide, or even an online program.|
|The pages most researchers get really excited about. This is real data that has been made available online.|
|Collections of files, not designed to be looked at online, but made for downloading (using FTP) to your own computer. May often contain useful software.|
|Pages with the best collections of links to the multitude of other web sites. If you want to, you can follow all these until the wee hours of the morning.|
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